Effects of the Good Behavior Game on Students’ Academic Engagement in Remote Classrooms During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Bridget O. Hier, Connor K. MacKenzie, Tory L. Ash, Samantha C. Maguire, Kaytlin A. Nelson, Emily C. Helminen, Emily A. Watts, Erin S.M. Matsuba, Ellen C. Masters, Carly C. Finelli, Joshua J. Circe, Taylor J. Hitchings, Alec R. Goldstein, William E. Sullivan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This multiple-baseline design study examined the effects of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) on class-wide academic engagement in online general education classrooms. Teachers in three third- through fifth-grade classrooms in the state of New York implemented the GBG remotely during the COVID-19 pandemic. Treatment integrity was supported using aspects of implementation planning and by providing emailed performance feedback. Teachers’ perceived usability and students’ perceived acceptability of the GBG were assessed. Visual analysis results indicated two clear demonstrations of an effect, but experimental control was limited by smaller and delayed effects in one classroom. Statistical analyses of the data suggest that implementing the GBG was associated with moderate to strong, statistically significant improvements in students’ academic engagement in all three classrooms. Teachers reported that the GBG was usable in their online classrooms, and students reported finding the intervention acceptable to participate in remotely. These results provide initial support for further examining the effectiveness and social validity of using the GBG to improve elementary students’ academic engagement during remote instruction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14-26
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Positive Behavior Interventions
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024


  • classroom management
  • intervention acceptability
  • online instruction
  • remote learning
  • usability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Applied Psychology


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