Effects of long-term exposures to low iron and branched-chain amino acid containing diets on aging skeletal muscle of Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats

Yuho Kim, Sok Sambo Men, Chen Liang, Candace N. Receno, Tom D Brutsaert, Donna L Korol, Kevin S Heffernan, Keith C Deruisseau

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1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Aging skeletal muscle displays an altered iron status that may promote oxidative stress and sarcopenia. A diet containing low iron (LI) could reduce muscle iron status and attenuate age-related muscle atrophy. Supplemental branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) may also alleviate sarcopenia by promoting muscle protein synthesis and iron status improvement. This study examined individual and combined effects of LI and BCAA diets on anabolic signaling and iron status in skeletal muscle of aging rats. Twenty-nine-month-old male Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats consumed the following control-base diets: control + regular iron (35 mg iron/kg) (CR; n = 11); control + LI (~6 mg iron/kg) (CL; n = 11); 2×BCAA + regular iron (BR; n = 10); and 2×BCAA + LI (BL; n = 12) for 12 weeks. Although LI and/or 2×BCAA did not affect plantaris muscle mass, 2×BCAA groups showed lower muscle iron content than did CR and CL groups (P < 0.05). p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase phosphorylation was greater in 2×BCAA and LI animals compared with CR animals (P < 0.05). Interactions between IRON and BCAA were observed for proteins indicative of mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha) and oxidative capacity (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 and citrate synthase) (P < 0.05) wherein the combined diet (BL) negated potential benefits of individual diets. Antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase activity, and oxidative injury (3-nitrotyrosine, protein carbonyls, and 4-hydroxynonenal) were similar between groups. In conclusion, 12 weeks of LI and 2×BCAA diets showed significant impacts on increasing anabolic signaling as well as ameliorating iron status; however, these interventions did not affect muscle mass.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)165-173
Number of pages9
JournalApplied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume43
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Branched Chain Amino Acids
Skeletal Muscle
Iron
Diet
Sarcopenia
Amino Acids
Muscles
Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases
Citrate (si)-Synthase
Muscular Atrophy
Muscle Proteins

Keywords

  • Aging
  • BCAA
  • Iron status
  • Protein synthesis
  • Sarcopenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Physiology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

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title = "Effects of long-term exposures to low iron and branched-chain amino acid containing diets on aging skeletal muscle of Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats",
abstract = "Aging skeletal muscle displays an altered iron status that may promote oxidative stress and sarcopenia. A diet containing low iron (LI) could reduce muscle iron status and attenuate age-related muscle atrophy. Supplemental branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) may also alleviate sarcopenia by promoting muscle protein synthesis and iron status improvement. This study examined individual and combined effects of LI and BCAA diets on anabolic signaling and iron status in skeletal muscle of aging rats. Twenty-nine-month-old male Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats consumed the following control-base diets: control + regular iron (35 mg iron/kg) (CR; n = 11); control + LI (~6 mg iron/kg) (CL; n = 11); 2×BCAA + regular iron (BR; n = 10); and 2×BCAA + LI (BL; n = 12) for 12 weeks. Although LI and/or 2×BCAA did not affect plantaris muscle mass, 2×BCAA groups showed lower muscle iron content than did CR and CL groups (P < 0.05). p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase phosphorylation was greater in 2×BCAA and LI animals compared with CR animals (P < 0.05). Interactions between IRON and BCAA were observed for proteins indicative of mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha) and oxidative capacity (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 and citrate synthase) (P < 0.05) wherein the combined diet (BL) negated potential benefits of individual diets. Antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase activity, and oxidative injury (3-nitrotyrosine, protein carbonyls, and 4-hydroxynonenal) were similar between groups. In conclusion, 12 weeks of LI and 2×BCAA diets showed significant impacts on increasing anabolic signaling as well as ameliorating iron status; however, these interventions did not affect muscle mass.",
keywords = "Aging, BCAA, Iron status, Protein synthesis, Sarcopenia",
author = "Yuho Kim and Men, {Sok Sambo} and Chen Liang and Receno, {Candace N.} and Brutsaert, {Tom D} and Korol, {Donna L} and Heffernan, {Kevin S} and Deruisseau, {Keith C}",
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T1 - Effects of long-term exposures to low iron and branched-chain amino acid containing diets on aging skeletal muscle of Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats

AU - Kim, Yuho

AU - Men, Sok Sambo

AU - Liang, Chen

AU - Receno, Candace N.

AU - Brutsaert, Tom D

AU - Korol, Donna L

AU - Heffernan, Kevin S

AU - Deruisseau, Keith C

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Aging skeletal muscle displays an altered iron status that may promote oxidative stress and sarcopenia. A diet containing low iron (LI) could reduce muscle iron status and attenuate age-related muscle atrophy. Supplemental branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) may also alleviate sarcopenia by promoting muscle protein synthesis and iron status improvement. This study examined individual and combined effects of LI and BCAA diets on anabolic signaling and iron status in skeletal muscle of aging rats. Twenty-nine-month-old male Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats consumed the following control-base diets: control + regular iron (35 mg iron/kg) (CR; n = 11); control + LI (~6 mg iron/kg) (CL; n = 11); 2×BCAA + regular iron (BR; n = 10); and 2×BCAA + LI (BL; n = 12) for 12 weeks. Although LI and/or 2×BCAA did not affect plantaris muscle mass, 2×BCAA groups showed lower muscle iron content than did CR and CL groups (P < 0.05). p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase phosphorylation was greater in 2×BCAA and LI animals compared with CR animals (P < 0.05). Interactions between IRON and BCAA were observed for proteins indicative of mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha) and oxidative capacity (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 and citrate synthase) (P < 0.05) wherein the combined diet (BL) negated potential benefits of individual diets. Antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase activity, and oxidative injury (3-nitrotyrosine, protein carbonyls, and 4-hydroxynonenal) were similar between groups. In conclusion, 12 weeks of LI and 2×BCAA diets showed significant impacts on increasing anabolic signaling as well as ameliorating iron status; however, these interventions did not affect muscle mass.

AB - Aging skeletal muscle displays an altered iron status that may promote oxidative stress and sarcopenia. A diet containing low iron (LI) could reduce muscle iron status and attenuate age-related muscle atrophy. Supplemental branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) may also alleviate sarcopenia by promoting muscle protein synthesis and iron status improvement. This study examined individual and combined effects of LI and BCAA diets on anabolic signaling and iron status in skeletal muscle of aging rats. Twenty-nine-month-old male Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats consumed the following control-base diets: control + regular iron (35 mg iron/kg) (CR; n = 11); control + LI (~6 mg iron/kg) (CL; n = 11); 2×BCAA + regular iron (BR; n = 10); and 2×BCAA + LI (BL; n = 12) for 12 weeks. Although LI and/or 2×BCAA did not affect plantaris muscle mass, 2×BCAA groups showed lower muscle iron content than did CR and CL groups (P < 0.05). p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase phosphorylation was greater in 2×BCAA and LI animals compared with CR animals (P < 0.05). Interactions between IRON and BCAA were observed for proteins indicative of mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha) and oxidative capacity (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 and citrate synthase) (P < 0.05) wherein the combined diet (BL) negated potential benefits of individual diets. Antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase activity, and oxidative injury (3-nitrotyrosine, protein carbonyls, and 4-hydroxynonenal) were similar between groups. In conclusion, 12 weeks of LI and 2×BCAA diets showed significant impacts on increasing anabolic signaling as well as ameliorating iron status; however, these interventions did not affect muscle mass.

KW - Aging

KW - BCAA

KW - Iron status

KW - Protein synthesis

KW - Sarcopenia

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U2 - 10.1139/apnm-2017-0272

DO - 10.1139/apnm-2017-0272

M3 - Article

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