Effects of 16 Weeks of Resistance Training on Muscle Quality and Muscle Growth Factors in Older Adult Women with Sarcopenia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Myong Won Seo, Sung-Woo Jung, Sung Woo Kim, Jung-Min Lee, Hyun Chul Jung, Jong Kook Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

This study examined the effects of resistance training on muscle quality, muscle growth factors, and functional fitness in older adult women with sarcopenia. Twenty-two older adult women aged over 65 with sarcopenia were randomly assigned to either resistance training (RT, n = 12) or non-exercise control group (CG, n = 10). The body weight-based and elastic band RT were performed three times a week, 60 min per session, for 16 weeks. Body composition and thigh muscle quality were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and computed tomography (CT), respectively. The muscle growth factors, including growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), activin A, and follistatin, were analyzed via blood samples. Statistical analyses were performed using repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), analysis of variance (ANOVA), and effect size (i.e., cohen’s d, partial eta square), and the significance level was set at 0.05. The RT group improved their functional fitness, grip strength, gait speed, and isometric muscle strength (p < 0.01, d > 0.99; large), while these variables did not change in the CG. An increase in intramuscular fat was only observed in the CG (p < 0.01, 1.06; large). Muscle growth factors such as follistatin were significantly increased in the RT (p < 0.05, 0.81; large), but other variables did not change following resistance training. Sixteen weeks of resistance training improved functional fitness and prevented age-related increases in intramuscular fat in the thigh area. However, there were only some changes in muscle growth factors, such as follistatin, suggesting that the effectiveness of resistance training on muscle growth factors is limited. Body weight-based and elastic band resistance training is an alternative training method for sarcopenia to minimize the age-related adverse effects on muscle function and quality.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6762
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume18
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 2021
Externally publishedYes

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