Effectiveness of choice theory connections: A cross-sectional and comparative analysis of california female inmates

Cheryl Grills, Sandra Villanueva, Michelle Anderson, Charisse L. Corsbie-Massay, Bradley Smith, Lester Johnson, Kyri Owens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


In the past 30 years, the rates of incarceration and recidivism for women in the United States have increased dramatically. Choice Theory® Connections (CTC) is a gender-tailored pre-release intervention program based on Choice Theory® (Glasser, 1999), and designed to achieve meaningful and sustainable cognitive and behavioral change. This evaluation examines CTC among 96 female participants in a California state prison enrolled in an introductory (n = 58) or advanced (n = 38) course. CTC significantly improved perceived stress, mindfulness, emotion regulation, impulsivity, and well-being on completion; effects were stronger for the introductory cohort, but significant effects also emerged for the advanced cohort. In addition, participants in the advanced cohort reported better scores at baseline, demonstrating the effects of prolonged engagement with the intervention. Results suggest that CTC can improve incarcerated women's well-being pre-release, a strong predictor of recidivism post-release. Further study and wider use of CTC are encouraged.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)757-771
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jun 3 2015


  • behavior program
  • offenders
  • psychometric evaluation
  • women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Applied Psychology


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