Effective Capacity in MIMO Channels with Arbitrary Inputs

Marwan Hammouda, Sami Akin, M. Cenk Gursoy, Jurgen Peissig

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Recently, communication systems that are both spectrum and energy efficient have attracted significant attention. Different from the existing research, we investigate the throughput and energy efficiency of a general class of multiple-input and multiple-output systems with arbitrary inputs when they are subject to statistical quality-of-service (QoS) constraints, which are imposed as limits on the delay violation and buffer overflow probabilities. We employ the effective capacity as the performance metric, which is the maximum constant data arrival rate at a buffer that can be sustained by the channel service process under specified QoS constraints. We obtain the optimal input covariance matrix that maximizes the effective capacity under a short-term average power constraint. Following that, we perform an asymptotic analysis of the effective capacity in the low signal-to-noise ratio and large-scale antenna regimes. In the low signal-to-noise ratio regime analysis, in order to determine the minimum energy-per-bit and also the slope of the effective capacity versus energy-per-bit curve at the minimum energy-per-bit, we utilize the first and second derivatives of the effective capacity when the signal-to-noise ratio approaches zero. We observe that the minimum energy-per-bit is independent of the input distribution, whereas the slope depends on the input distribution. In the large-scale antenna analysis, we show that the effective capacity approaches the average transmission rate in the channel with the increasing number of transmit and/or receive antennas. Particularly, the gap between the effective capacity and the average transmission rate in the channel, which is caused by the QoS constraints, is minimized with the number of antennas. In addition, we put forward the nonasymptotic backlog and delay violation bounds by utilizing the effective capacity. Finally, we substantiate our analytical results through numerical illustrations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3252-3268
Number of pages17
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2018


  • Effective capacity
  • energy efficiency
  • large-scale antenna regime
  • minimum energy-per-bit
  • multiple-antenna systems
  • mutual information
  • optimal input covariance
  • quality of service constraints

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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