Effect of resistance exercise on muscle steroid receptor protein content in strength-trained men and women

Jakob L. Vingren, William J. Kraemer, Disa L. Hatfield, Jeff S. Volek, Nicholas A. Ratamess, Jeffrey M. Anderson, Keijo Häkkinen, Juha Ahtiainen, Maren S. Fragala, Gwendolyn Thomas, Jen Yu Ho, Carl M. Maresh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

48 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of resistance exercise (RE) on muscle androgen receptor (AR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein content. Fifteen resistance-trained men (n = 8; 21 ± 1 years, 175.3 ± 6.7 cm, 90.8 ± 11.6 kg) and women (n = 7; 24 ± 5 years, 164.6 ± 6.7 cm, 76.4 ± 15.6 kg) completed 6 sets of 10 repetitions of heavy squats. Blood samples were obtained before RE, after 3 and 6 sets of squats, and 5, 15, 30 and 70 min after RE. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were obtained before RE, and 10 min and 70 min after RE. Blood samples were analyzed for total and free testosterone concentrations and muscle samples were analyzed for AR and GR protein content. Circulating total testosterone increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in men and free testosterone increased in men and women with exercise. AR was significantly reduced at 70 min post-exercise in men and at 10 min post-exercise in women compared to pre-exercise. There were no changes in GR following RE, but GR was significantly higher in women compared to men. These findings support a current paradigm for stabilization followed by a reduction and then a rebound in the acute AR response to RE but demonstrate that gender differences exist in the timeline of the AR response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1033-1039
Number of pages7
Issue number13-14
StatePublished - Nov 2009
Externally publishedYes



  • Androgen receptor
  • Endocrine
  • Exercise training
  • Glucocorticoid receptor
  • Testosterone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Vingren, J. L., Kraemer, W. J., Hatfield, D. L., Volek, J. S., Ratamess, N. A., Anderson, J. M., Häkkinen, K., Ahtiainen, J., Fragala, M. S., Thomas, G., Ho, J. Y., & Maresh, C. M. (2009). Effect of resistance exercise on muscle steroid receptor protein content in strength-trained men and women. Steroids, 74(13-14), 1033-1039. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2009.08.002