Dog Ownership and Training Reduces Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Increases Self-Compassion Among Veterans: Results of a Longitudinal Control Study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives: The aims of this study were to measure the potential impact of a therapeutic dog ownership and
training program for Veterans with symptoms of post-traumatic stress.
Design: The study used a quasi-experimental design with two cohorts of Veterans—a dog owner-trainer
intervention and a wait list control group. Participants completed baseline and 12-month follow-up assessments.
Setting: Clear Path for Veterans, a nonclinical, open recreation facility whose mission is to support Veterans
and their families in the reintegration process after military service.
Subjects: Participants (n = 48) were either enrolled in the veterans therapeutic dog owner-trainer program
(Dogs2Vets) or were placed in the wait list control group.
Intervention: Veterans were enrolled in the Dogs2Vets program, a 12-month structured dog owner-trainer
program that engages veterans in the training and care of a dog that they ultimately adopt. The Dogs2Vets
Program focuses on the healing aspects of the human-animal bond.
Outcome measures: PTSD Checklist, Military Version (PCL-M), perceived stress scale, self-compassion
scale (SCS) composite, and SCS subscales for isolation and self-judgment.
Results: Veterans participating in the Dogs2Vets owner-trainer program experienced significant reductions in
symptoms of post-traumatic stress, perceived stress, isolation, and self-judgment accompanied by significant
increases in self-compassion. In contrast there were no significant improvements in these measures among
veterans in the wait list control group. Qualitative data reinforced the statistical findings with themes of
decreased isolation, unconditional acceptance and companionship, and a renewed sense of safety and purpose
from their relationships with their dogs.
Conclusion: Veterans benefit significantly from dog ownership in combination with a structured dog training
program. Not only do they experience significant decreases in stress and post-traumatic stress symptoms but
also they experience less isolation and self-judgment while also experiencing significant improvements in selfcompassion.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number10.1089/acm.2018.0179
JournalJournal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Early online date2018
DOIs
StatePublished - 2018

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Ownership
Veterans
Longitudinal Studies
Dogs
Control Groups
Recreation
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders
Checklist
Research Design
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Safety
Therapeutics

Cite this

@article{e5fd0b9530144ffd9b095e1c61ceb06d,
title = "Dog Ownership and Training Reduces Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Increases Self-Compassion Among Veterans: Results of a Longitudinal Control Study",
abstract = "Objectives: The aims of this study were to measure the potential impact of a therapeutic dog ownership andtraining program for Veterans with symptoms of post-traumatic stress.Design: The study used a quasi-experimental design with two cohorts of Veterans—a dog owner-trainerintervention and a wait list control group. Participants completed baseline and 12-month follow-up assessments.Setting: Clear Path for Veterans, a nonclinical, open recreation facility whose mission is to support Veteransand their families in the reintegration process after military service.Subjects: Participants (n = 48) were either enrolled in the veterans therapeutic dog owner-trainer program(Dogs2Vets) or were placed in the wait list control group.Intervention: Veterans were enrolled in the Dogs2Vets program, a 12-month structured dog owner-trainerprogram that engages veterans in the training and care of a dog that they ultimately adopt. The Dogs2VetsProgram focuses on the healing aspects of the human-animal bond.Outcome measures: PTSD Checklist, Military Version (PCL-M), perceived stress scale, self-compassionscale (SCS) composite, and SCS subscales for isolation and self-judgment.Results: Veterans participating in the Dogs2Vets owner-trainer program experienced significant reductions insymptoms of post-traumatic stress, perceived stress, isolation, and self-judgment accompanied by significantincreases in self-compassion. In contrast there were no significant improvements in these measures amongveterans in the wait list control group. Qualitative data reinforced the statistical findings with themes ofdecreased isolation, unconditional acceptance and companionship, and a renewed sense of safety and purposefrom their relationships with their dogs.Conclusion: Veterans benefit significantly from dog ownership in combination with a structured dog trainingprogram. Not only do they experience significant decreases in stress and post-traumatic stress symptoms butalso they experience less isolation and self-judgment while also experiencing significant improvements in selfcompassion.",
author = "Dessa Bergen-Cico and Yvonne Smith and Gump, {Brooks B} and Karen Wolford",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1089/acm.2018.0179",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine",
issn = "1075-5535",
publisher = "Mary Ann Liebert Inc.",

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T1 - Dog Ownership and Training Reduces Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Increases Self-Compassion Among Veterans: Results of a Longitudinal Control Study

AU - Bergen-Cico, Dessa

AU - Smith, Yvonne

AU - Gump, Brooks B

AU - Wolford, Karen

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Objectives: The aims of this study were to measure the potential impact of a therapeutic dog ownership andtraining program for Veterans with symptoms of post-traumatic stress.Design: The study used a quasi-experimental design with two cohorts of Veterans—a dog owner-trainerintervention and a wait list control group. Participants completed baseline and 12-month follow-up assessments.Setting: Clear Path for Veterans, a nonclinical, open recreation facility whose mission is to support Veteransand their families in the reintegration process after military service.Subjects: Participants (n = 48) were either enrolled in the veterans therapeutic dog owner-trainer program(Dogs2Vets) or were placed in the wait list control group.Intervention: Veterans were enrolled in the Dogs2Vets program, a 12-month structured dog owner-trainerprogram that engages veterans in the training and care of a dog that they ultimately adopt. The Dogs2VetsProgram focuses on the healing aspects of the human-animal bond.Outcome measures: PTSD Checklist, Military Version (PCL-M), perceived stress scale, self-compassionscale (SCS) composite, and SCS subscales for isolation and self-judgment.Results: Veterans participating in the Dogs2Vets owner-trainer program experienced significant reductions insymptoms of post-traumatic stress, perceived stress, isolation, and self-judgment accompanied by significantincreases in self-compassion. In contrast there were no significant improvements in these measures amongveterans in the wait list control group. Qualitative data reinforced the statistical findings with themes ofdecreased isolation, unconditional acceptance and companionship, and a renewed sense of safety and purposefrom their relationships with their dogs.Conclusion: Veterans benefit significantly from dog ownership in combination with a structured dog trainingprogram. Not only do they experience significant decreases in stress and post-traumatic stress symptoms butalso they experience less isolation and self-judgment while also experiencing significant improvements in selfcompassion.

AB - Objectives: The aims of this study were to measure the potential impact of a therapeutic dog ownership andtraining program for Veterans with symptoms of post-traumatic stress.Design: The study used a quasi-experimental design with two cohorts of Veterans—a dog owner-trainerintervention and a wait list control group. Participants completed baseline and 12-month follow-up assessments.Setting: Clear Path for Veterans, a nonclinical, open recreation facility whose mission is to support Veteransand their families in the reintegration process after military service.Subjects: Participants (n = 48) were either enrolled in the veterans therapeutic dog owner-trainer program(Dogs2Vets) or were placed in the wait list control group.Intervention: Veterans were enrolled in the Dogs2Vets program, a 12-month structured dog owner-trainerprogram that engages veterans in the training and care of a dog that they ultimately adopt. The Dogs2VetsProgram focuses on the healing aspects of the human-animal bond.Outcome measures: PTSD Checklist, Military Version (PCL-M), perceived stress scale, self-compassionscale (SCS) composite, and SCS subscales for isolation and self-judgment.Results: Veterans participating in the Dogs2Vets owner-trainer program experienced significant reductions insymptoms of post-traumatic stress, perceived stress, isolation, and self-judgment accompanied by significantincreases in self-compassion. In contrast there were no significant improvements in these measures amongveterans in the wait list control group. Qualitative data reinforced the statistical findings with themes ofdecreased isolation, unconditional acceptance and companionship, and a renewed sense of safety and purposefrom their relationships with their dogs.Conclusion: Veterans benefit significantly from dog ownership in combination with a structured dog trainingprogram. Not only do they experience significant decreases in stress and post-traumatic stress symptoms butalso they experience less isolation and self-judgment while also experiencing significant improvements in selfcompassion.

U2 - 10.1089/acm.2018.0179

DO - 10.1089/acm.2018.0179

M3 - Article

JO - Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine

JF - Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine

SN - 1075-5535

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