AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into skeletal muscle are processes regulated by similar isoforms of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptor (SNARE) and mammalian homologue of unc-18 (Munc18) protein families. Double C2 domain β (Doc2b), a SNARE- and Munc18-interacting protein, is implicated as a crucial effector of glycaemic control. However, whether Doc2b is naturally limiting for these processes, and whether Doc2b enrichment might exert a beneficial effect upon glycaemia in vivo, remains undetermined.
METHODS: Tetracycline-repressible transgenic (Tg) mice engineered to overexpress Doc2b simultaneously in the pancreas, skeletal muscle and adipose tissues were compared with wild-type (Wt) littermate mice regarding glucose and insulin tolerance, islet function in vivo and ex vivo, and skeletal muscle GLUT4 accumulation in transverse tubule/sarcolemmal surface membranes. SNARE complex formation was further assessed using Doc2b overexpressing L6-GLUT4-myc myoblasts to derive mechanisms relatable to physiological in vivo analyses.
RESULTS: Doc2b Tg mice cleared glucose substantially faster than Wt mice, correlated with enhancements in both phases of insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity. Heightened peripheral insulin sensitivity correlated with elevated insulin-stimulated GLUT4 vesicle accumulation in cell surface membranes of Doc2b Tg mouse skeletal muscle. Mechanistic studies demonstrated Doc2b enrichment to enhance syntaxin-4-SNARE complex formation in skeletal muscle cells.
CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Doc2b is a limiting factor in SNARE exocytosis events pertinent to glycaemic regulation in vivo. Doc2b enrichment may provide a novel means to simultaneously boost islet and skeletal muscle function in vivo in the treatment and/or prevention of diabetes.
- Adipose Tissue/metabolism
- Calcium-Binding Proteins/genetics
- Insulin Resistance/physiology
- Insulin Secretion
- Mice, Transgenic
- Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism
- Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics
- R-SNARE Proteins/metabolism