Direct Target Localization with Quantized Measurements in Noncoherent Distributed MIMO Radar Systems

Guoxin Zhang, Wei Yi, Pramod K. Varshney, Lingjiang Kong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


In this article, a direct target localization algorithm with quantized measurements for noncoherent multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems is proposed. In this system, each receiver transmits a low-bit quantized version of the echo rather than the full raw data to the fusion center. We construct a joint likelihood function based on the low-bit data of each receiver, from which the unknown target position can be directly determined. The Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) is derived to analyze the localization performance of our proposed algorithm. To maximize the localization performance, a CRLB-based objective function is designed to obtain the optimum quantization thresholds. The formulated problem is a high-dimensional and nonconvex optimization problem that, when solved, determines two types of coupled parameters for the quantization thresholds and the complex-valued scaling coefficients of the signal. We propose a batch gradient descent embedded particle swarm optimization algorithm to solve this problem effectively. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm delivers superior performance in terms of maximizing the overall localization performance, and the 3-bit quantized algorithm is able to provide performance that is very close to the unquantized algorithm. Experimental data recorded by three small radars are also provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5103618
JournalIEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
StatePublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB)
  • direct target localization
  • maximum likelihood
  • multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) radar
  • particle swarm optimization (PSO)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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