Device-Scale Nanochannel Evaporator for High Heat Flux Dissipation

Durgesh Ranjan, Shalabh C. Maroo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


High heat flux values in thin film evaporation experiments are typically attained based on short wicking distance, ranging from tens to hundreds of micrometers between the meniscus and the liquid reservoir, thus making such devices vulnerable to quick drying out while also limiting their real-world applicability. Here, the performance of a nanochannel (122 nm depth and 10 µm width) based evaporator with FC72 is demonstrated as working fluid. FC72 is an ideal fluid for electronics cooling as it is nonpolar and dielectric with a low boiling point. The 1 mm thick evaporator consists of more than 1000 nanochannels connecting two micro-reservoirs 4.8 cm apart. Thin film evaporation experiments are conducted for four different power inputs, and the steady-state wicking distance varied from 21 to 8 mm depending on the evaporator's working temperature. Direct weight measurement of evaporated FC72 is used to estimate the interfacial evaporative heat flux. Such a technique mitigates the need for contact angle measurement in micro/nano confined space, a methodology commonly used in literature studies that is prone to error and uncertainties. The maximum evaporative heat flux is 0.93 kW cm−2 at ≈65 °C hot spot temperature. Interestingly, the product of wicking distance and evaporative heat flux remain constant for all power inputs. Numerical simulations are performed to quantify heat loss and effectiveness of the evaporator.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2300129
JournalAdvanced Materials Interfaces
Issue number23
StatePublished - Aug 15 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • FC-72
  • evaporation
  • interfaces
  • nanochannels
  • thin films

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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