Development and Validation of the Vending Evaluation for Nutrient-Density (VEND)ing Audit

Tanya M. Horacek, Elif Dede Yildirim, Melissa Matthews Schreiber, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Sarah Colby, Adrienne A. White, Karla P. Shelnutt, Melissa D. Olfert, Anne E. Mathews, Kristin Riggsbee, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Jesse Stabile Morrell, Kendra Kattelmann

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Abstract

Background: This paper describes the development and validation of the Vending Evaluation for Nutrient-Density (VEND)ing audit to comprehensively evaluate vended products based upon healthfulness, price and promotion, and machine accessibility. Methods: A novel vending nutrient-density score was created to determine the healthfulness of vended snack/beverage products. Field tested in United States colleges, VENDing audit (∑nutrient-density + 10 × % healthy products) and Support sub-scores (price + promotion + accessibility) were calculated for snack/beverage machines. Higher scores indicate more healthful vending options and supports for choosing healthfully. Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending (NEMS-V) was used to validate the nutrient-density score for a sub-sample of machines. Sensitivity and specificity were computed by comparing the number of healthy snacks/beverages determined by NEMS-V and the VENDing nutrient-density scores. Results: Researchers conducted the VENDing audit on 228 snack/beverage vending machines at 9 universities within the United States and used both VENDing and NEMS-V on 33 snack and 52 beverage vending machines. Mean VENDing audit scores were 4.5 ± 2.0 (2.6, 3.4) and 2.6 ± 2.0 (0, 12) for snack/beverage machines, respectively. The number of products considered healthy assessed with both the VENDing nutrient-density scores and the NEMS-V were positively correlated for beverages (r = 0.687, p < 0.001) and snacks (r = 0.366, p < 0.05). The sensitivity was excellent for beverages (0.83) and moderate for snacks (0.69); while the specificity was moderate for both beverages (0.66) and snacks (0.50). Conclusions: The VENDing audit uses unique, valid, and reliable nutrient-density scoring to evaluate snacks/beverages along a continuum of healthful criteria and comprehensively evaluates the full vending environment.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume16
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 8 2019

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Development and Validation of the Vending Evaluation for Nutrient-Density (VEND)ing Audit. / Horacek, Tanya M.; Yildirim, Elif Dede; Matthews Schreiber, Melissa; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Colby, Sarah; White, Adrienne A.; Shelnutt, Karla P.; Olfert, Melissa D.; Mathews, Anne E.; Riggsbee, Kristin; Franzen-Castle, Lisa; Morrell, Jesse Stabile; Kattelmann, Kendra.

In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 16, No. 3, 08.02.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Horacek, TM, Yildirim, ED, Matthews Schreiber, M, Byrd-Bredbenner, C, Colby, S, White, AA, Shelnutt, KP, Olfert, MD, Mathews, AE, Riggsbee, K, Franzen-Castle, L, Morrell, JS & Kattelmann, K 2019, 'Development and Validation of the Vending Evaluation for Nutrient-Density (VEND)ing Audit', International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 16, no. 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030514
Horacek, Tanya M. ; Yildirim, Elif Dede ; Matthews Schreiber, Melissa ; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol ; Colby, Sarah ; White, Adrienne A. ; Shelnutt, Karla P. ; Olfert, Melissa D. ; Mathews, Anne E. ; Riggsbee, Kristin ; Franzen-Castle, Lisa ; Morrell, Jesse Stabile ; Kattelmann, Kendra. / Development and Validation of the Vending Evaluation for Nutrient-Density (VEND)ing Audit. In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019 ; Vol. 16, No. 3.
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abstract = "Background: This paper describes the development and validation of the Vending Evaluation for Nutrient-Density (VEND)ing audit to comprehensively evaluate vended products based upon healthfulness, price and promotion, and machine accessibility. Methods: A novel vending nutrient-density score was created to determine the healthfulness of vended snack/beverage products. Field tested in United States colleges, VENDing audit (∑nutrient-density + 10 × {\%} healthy products) and Support sub-scores (price + promotion + accessibility) were calculated for snack/beverage machines. Higher scores indicate more healthful vending options and supports for choosing healthfully. Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending (NEMS-V) was used to validate the nutrient-density score for a sub-sample of machines. Sensitivity and specificity were computed by comparing the number of healthy snacks/beverages determined by NEMS-V and the VENDing nutrient-density scores. Results: Researchers conducted the VENDing audit on 228 snack/beverage vending machines at 9 universities within the United States and used both VENDing and NEMS-V on 33 snack and 52 beverage vending machines. Mean VENDing audit scores were 4.5 ± 2.0 (2.6, 3.4) and 2.6 ± 2.0 (0, 12) for snack/beverage machines, respectively. The number of products considered healthy assessed with both the VENDing nutrient-density scores and the NEMS-V were positively correlated for beverages (r = 0.687, p < 0.001) and snacks (r = 0.366, p < 0.05). The sensitivity was excellent for beverages (0.83) and moderate for snacks (0.69); while the specificity was moderate for both beverages (0.66) and snacks (0.50). Conclusions: The VENDing audit uses unique, valid, and reliable nutrient-density scoring to evaluate snacks/beverages along a continuum of healthful criteria and comprehensively evaluates the full vending environment.",
author = "Horacek, {Tanya M.} and Yildirim, {Elif Dede} and {Matthews Schreiber}, Melissa and Carol Byrd-Bredbenner and Sarah Colby and White, {Adrienne A.} and Shelnutt, {Karla P.} and Olfert, {Melissa D.} and Mathews, {Anne E.} and Kristin Riggsbee and Lisa Franzen-Castle and Morrell, {Jesse Stabile} and Kendra Kattelmann",
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AU - Horacek, Tanya M.

AU - Yildirim, Elif Dede

AU - Matthews Schreiber, Melissa

AU - Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

AU - Colby, Sarah

AU - White, Adrienne A.

AU - Shelnutt, Karla P.

AU - Olfert, Melissa D.

AU - Mathews, Anne E.

AU - Riggsbee, Kristin

AU - Franzen-Castle, Lisa

AU - Morrell, Jesse Stabile

AU - Kattelmann, Kendra

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N2 - Background: This paper describes the development and validation of the Vending Evaluation for Nutrient-Density (VEND)ing audit to comprehensively evaluate vended products based upon healthfulness, price and promotion, and machine accessibility. Methods: A novel vending nutrient-density score was created to determine the healthfulness of vended snack/beverage products. Field tested in United States colleges, VENDing audit (∑nutrient-density + 10 × % healthy products) and Support sub-scores (price + promotion + accessibility) were calculated for snack/beverage machines. Higher scores indicate more healthful vending options and supports for choosing healthfully. Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending (NEMS-V) was used to validate the nutrient-density score for a sub-sample of machines. Sensitivity and specificity were computed by comparing the number of healthy snacks/beverages determined by NEMS-V and the VENDing nutrient-density scores. Results: Researchers conducted the VENDing audit on 228 snack/beverage vending machines at 9 universities within the United States and used both VENDing and NEMS-V on 33 snack and 52 beverage vending machines. Mean VENDing audit scores were 4.5 ± 2.0 (2.6, 3.4) and 2.6 ± 2.0 (0, 12) for snack/beverage machines, respectively. The number of products considered healthy assessed with both the VENDing nutrient-density scores and the NEMS-V were positively correlated for beverages (r = 0.687, p < 0.001) and snacks (r = 0.366, p < 0.05). The sensitivity was excellent for beverages (0.83) and moderate for snacks (0.69); while the specificity was moderate for both beverages (0.66) and snacks (0.50). Conclusions: The VENDing audit uses unique, valid, and reliable nutrient-density scoring to evaluate snacks/beverages along a continuum of healthful criteria and comprehensively evaluates the full vending environment.

AB - Background: This paper describes the development and validation of the Vending Evaluation for Nutrient-Density (VEND)ing audit to comprehensively evaluate vended products based upon healthfulness, price and promotion, and machine accessibility. Methods: A novel vending nutrient-density score was created to determine the healthfulness of vended snack/beverage products. Field tested in United States colleges, VENDing audit (∑nutrient-density + 10 × % healthy products) and Support sub-scores (price + promotion + accessibility) were calculated for snack/beverage machines. Higher scores indicate more healthful vending options and supports for choosing healthfully. Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending (NEMS-V) was used to validate the nutrient-density score for a sub-sample of machines. Sensitivity and specificity were computed by comparing the number of healthy snacks/beverages determined by NEMS-V and the VENDing nutrient-density scores. Results: Researchers conducted the VENDing audit on 228 snack/beverage vending machines at 9 universities within the United States and used both VENDing and NEMS-V on 33 snack and 52 beverage vending machines. Mean VENDing audit scores were 4.5 ± 2.0 (2.6, 3.4) and 2.6 ± 2.0 (0, 12) for snack/beverage machines, respectively. The number of products considered healthy assessed with both the VENDing nutrient-density scores and the NEMS-V were positively correlated for beverages (r = 0.687, p < 0.001) and snacks (r = 0.366, p < 0.05). The sensitivity was excellent for beverages (0.83) and moderate for snacks (0.69); while the specificity was moderate for both beverages (0.66) and snacks (0.50). Conclusions: The VENDing audit uses unique, valid, and reliable nutrient-density scoring to evaluate snacks/beverages along a continuum of healthful criteria and comprehensively evaluates the full vending environment.

U2 - 10.3390/ijerph16030514

DO - 10.3390/ijerph16030514

M3 - Article

VL - 16

JO - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

JF - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

SN - 1661-7827

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ER -