Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Time Management and Estimation (TiME) Scale

Ashley Schiros, Will H. Canu, Kevin M. Antshel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Temporal processing deficits are associated with multiple psychopathologies, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and negatively impact functioning in everyday situations that require time management skills. Despite the clinical significance of temporal processing deficits, no existing self-report measure of temporal processing is psychometrically validated, and none comprehensively assess the multifaceted nature of temporal processing. The Time Management and Estimation Scale (TiME) was developed to fill these clinical and research voids and provide a self-report assessment of multiple facets of temporal processing in a college student sample (N = 215; Mage = 18.75). Factor analysis on the TiME indicated a 4-factor structure with an overall internal consistency in the good range (α = 0.80). The TiME demonstrated strong concurrent validity with a measure of procrastination (r =.64, p <.001) and significant, moderate-strength associations with a measure of psychological distress (r =.45, p <.001). The TiME demonstrated weak correlations with facets of impulsivity and was not significantly correlated with objective cognitive measures of temporal processing or ADHD symptoms. Future refinement and continued assessment of the TiME in clinical populations may allow it to fill an important niche in clinical assessment of temporal processing difficulties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)731-744
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2023


  • ADHD
  • Psychometrics
  • Scale Development
  • Temporal Processing
  • Time Management
  • Time Perception

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology


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