Development and Evaluation of the Disinhibited Social Engagement Scale (DSES): a Tool for Assessment and Guide for Counseling Practice

Yanhong Liu, Tony Xing Tan, Dan Li, Yanqing Xu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Disinhibited social engagement (DSE) has been highlighted as a salient issue impacting children from various life situations, such as adoption, foster care, and maltreatment. In tackling the twofold gap on knowledge and measurement of DSE, we developed the Disinhibited Social Engagement Scale (DSES) using parents of 88 internationally adopted children in the U.S. The final DSES is comprised of three evident factors: social discrimination and selectivity, physical and verbal closeness, and friendliness level. Findings of the study provide insights for counselors working with at-risk youth for DSE, including practical implications for assessment and counseling practice. The study also sheds light on future research directions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal for the Advancement of Counselling
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019



  • Adopted children
  • Attachment
  • Counseling
  • Disinhibited social engagement
  • Exploratory factor analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychology (miscellaneous)

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