Crystallization of a perovskite film for higher performance solar cells by controlling water concentration in methyl ammonium iodide precursor solution

Nirmal Adhikari, Ashish Dubey, Eman A. Gaml, Bjorn Vaagensmith, Khan Mamun Reza, Sally Adel Abdelsalam Mabrouk, Shaopeng Gu, Jiantao Zai, Xuefeng Qian, Qiquan Qiao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

76 Scopus citations

Abstract

An optimal small amount of water added into methyl ammonium iodide (MAI) solution in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) helps perovskite crystallization and leads to larger grain size from sequential deposition of perovskite films. The concentration of water was varied from 1% to 7% (vol% of IPA) in MAI solution and optical absorption, crystallization, morphology of perovskite films and their photovoltaic performance were studied in perovskite solar cells. 5% by volume was found to lead to preferential crystallization in the (110) plane with grain size about three times that of perovskite films prepared without adding water into the MAI solution. The optimal water concentration of 5% by volume in the MAI solution led to average perovskite grain size of ∼600 nm and solar cell efficiency of 12.42% at forward scan with a rate of 0.5 V s-1. Device performance decreases after increasing water concentration beyond 5% in the MAI solution due to formation of the PbI2 phase. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements show the shortest charge transport time at 0.99 μs and the longest charge carrier life time at 13.6 μs for perovskite films prepared from 5% water in MAI solution, which improved perovskite solar cell efficiency from 9.04% to 12.42%.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2693-2703
Number of pages11
JournalNanoscale
Volume8
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 7 2016
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

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