Characteristics of virtual experience in electronic commerce: A protocol analysis

Hairong Li, Terry Daugherty, Frank Biocca

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

324 Scopus citations


This protocol analysis examines the content of virtual experience in e-commerce, as concurrently verbalized by a sample of 30 participants while interacting with four 3-D products. Thirteen different types of psychological activities were observed and classified into five characteristics of virtual experience: active process, presence, involvement, enjoyment, and affordances. As a result, virtual experience is vivid, involving, active, affective psychological states occurring in an individual interacting with 3-D computer simulations. The study anchors the position of virtual experience on the spectrum of consumer experience with design implications in e-commerce discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13-30
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Interactive Marketing
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Marketing


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