BACKGROUND: Glucose concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) have been used as biomarkers to differentiate type 2 diabetes risk phenotypes. No studies have examined changes in OGTT-glucose phenotypes following lifestyle intervention among high-risk youth.
OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in OGTT-glucose phenotypes following lifestyle intervention and to explore differences in insulin sensitivity and β-cell function among post-intervention phenotypes.
METHODS: Latino adolescents with obesity (n = 48, age 15.4 ± 1.0, BMI% 98.2 ± 1.4, female 56.3%) completed a 12-week lifestyle intervention that included weekly nutrition education and physical activity. At baseline and 12 weeks, youth completed a 2-h OGTT with glucose and insulin concentrations assessed at 0', 30', 60', 90' and 120'. Glucose concentrations during the OGTT were used to identify biomarkers, 1-h glucose, glucose response curve and time to glucose peak. Using these respective biomarkers, high-risk (1-h glucose ≥ 155 mg/dl, Monophasic, Late Peak) and lower-risk phenotypes (1-h glucose < 155 mg/dl, Biphasic, Early Peak) were categorized. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by whole-body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) and β-cell function by oral disposition index (oDI).
RESULTS: Following intervention, the prevalence of Monophasic phenotypes decreased from 81% to 67% (p = 0.048) and 1-h glucose ≥ 155 mg/dl from 38% to 10% (p = 0.054). Although Late Peak phenotypes did not significantly change (from 58% to 29%, p = 0.200), Early Peak phenotypes at post-intervention demonstrated significantly higher WBISI compared to Late Peak (2.3 ± 0.1 vs 1.7 ± 0.2, p = 0.023).
CONCLUSIONS: OGTT-glucose phenotypes improve following lifestyle intervention among high-risk youth. These findings further support their potential utility as clinical biomarkers to identify diabetes risk and risk reduction in youth.