Self-assembly of molecules often results in new emerging properties. Even very short peptides can self-assemble into structures with a variety of physical and structural characteristics. Remarkably, many peptide assemblies show high catalytic activity in model reactions reaching efficiencies comparable to those found in natural enzymes by weight. In this review, we discuss different strategies used to rationally develop self-assembled peptide catalysts with natural and unnatural backbones as well as with metal-containing cofactors.
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