Cascading trait-mediated interactions induced by ant pheromones

Hsun Yi Hsieh, Heidi Liere, Estelí J. Soto, Ivette Perfecto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMII) can be as important as density-mediated indirect interactions. Here, we provide evidence for a novel trait-mediated cascade (where one TMII affects another TMII) and demonstrate that the mechanism consists of a predator eavesdropping on chemical signaling. Ants protect scale insects from predation by adult coccinellid beetles - the first TMII. However, parasitic phorid flies reduce ant foraging activity by 50% - the second TMII, providing a window of opportunity for female beetles to oviposit in high-quality microsites. Beetle larvae are protected from ant predation and benefit from living in patches with high scale densities. We demonstrate that female beetles can detect pheromones released by the ant when attacked by phorids, and that only females, and especially gravid females, are attracted to the ant pheromone. As ants reduce their movement when under attack by phorids, we conclude that phorids facilitate beetle oviposition, thus producing the TMII cascade.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2181-2191
Number of pages11
JournalEcology and Evolution
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Alarm signaling
  • Ant-hemipteran mutualism
  • Coffee agroecosystem
  • Complex ecological network
  • Predator avoidance
  • TMII

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation


Dive into the research topics of 'Cascading trait-mediated interactions induced by ant pheromones'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this