With the general aggression model and presence (i.e., sense of "being there") theory as frameworks, this study investigates the effects of violence cues (blood and screams of pain) and players' individual differences in aggression (trait aggression) on brand logo memory and on attitude change in a violent first-person shooter game (Half-Life 2). Physiological arousal (skin conductance levels) was assessed during game play and participants reported their sense of presence in the game. Results indicate that violence cues influence brand logo memory through engagement and affect attitude change via arousal. Although physiological arousal led to positive change in brand attitude, it does not significantly influence logo memory. Conversely, although higher levels of spatial presence led to better logo memory, there was a corresponding reduction in attitude change for highly recognized brands. We consider the possibility that increased memory but negative attitude change with higher presence in violent video games could deter advertisers from placing their messages inside violent games.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Business and International Management