Bias Effects in a Two-Stage Recognition Paradigm: A Challenge for “Pure” Threshold and Signal Detection Models

Qiuli Ma, Jeffrey J. Starns, David Kellen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We explored a two-stage recognition memory paradigm in which people first make single-item “studied”/“not studied” decisions and then have a chance to correct their errors in forced-choice trials. Each forcedchoicetrial included one studied word (“target”) and one nonstudied word (“lure”) that received the sameprevious single-item response. For example, a studied-studied trial would have a target that was correctlycalled “studied” and a lure that was incorrectly called “studied.” The two-high-threshold (2HT) model andthe unequal-variance signal detection (UVSD) model predict opposite effects of biasing the initial singleitemresponses on subsequent forced-choice accuracy. Results from two experiments showed that the biaseffect is actually near zero and well out of the range of effects predicted by either model. Follow-up analysessuggested that the model failures were not a function of experiment artifacts like changing memorystates between the two types of recognition trials. Follow-up analyses also showed that the dual process signaldetection model made better predictions for the forced-choice data than 2HT and UVSD models

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • Recognition memory
  • Signal detection theory
  • Threshold models

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language

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