Bias-Based Harassment Among US Adolescents

Jennifer Greif Green, Manuel Ramirez, Gabriel J. Merrin, Melissa K. Holt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bias-based (also called identity-based) harassment refers specifically to a subset of peer victimization that targets a person’s identity, such as their gender identity, religion, immigration status, sexual orientation, race, or ethnicity. Research indicates that bias-based harassment is a particularly devastating form of victimization that has an even stronger association with poor mental health and school functioning than general forms of bullying and harassment that do not target identity characteristics. In the current study, we used the AmeriSpeak Teen Panel, a US nationally representative panel of youth ages 13–17, to examine the prevalence and predictors of bias-based harassment. Youth (N = 639) completed a self-report survey about their experiences with victimization and perpetration of bias-based harassment. A series of regression models tested the association of individual youth demographic characteristics with reports of bias-based harassment victimization and perpetration. Overall, 28.2% of youth reported experiences of bias-based victimization, and 12.4% reported bias-based perpetration. Bias-based harassment most often targeted students’ race, sexual orientation, and gender identity. Results have implications for school-based prevention and intervention planning to address bias-based harassment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalSchool Mental Health
StateAccepted/In press - 2024


  • Bias-based harassment
  • Bullying
  • Peer victimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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