Better together: Effects of four self-efficacy-building strategies on online statistical learning

Xiaoxia Huang, Richard E. Mayer, Ellen L. Usher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


The goal of this study is to test the individual and combined effects of supplementing an online statistics lesson with four motivational strategies corresponding to Bandura's (1997) four sources of self-efficacy (anxiety coping, modeling, mental practice, and effort feedback) on cognitive, motivational, and affective outcomes. Internet participants (N = 279) completed an online statistics module in one of six conditions with one or all four self-efficacy-building strategies (5 treatment conditions) or none of these strategies (control condition). The results indicated that the four strategies worked effectively in combination, significantly improving transfer test scores (d = 0.608), increasing self-efficacy ratings (d = 0.696), and reducing task anxiety ratings (d = −0.534), as compared with the control condition. By contrast, no motivational strategy alone was effective. The results suggest the importance of taking advantage of the power of all four sources of self-efficacy information in combination when designing motivational interventions for online mathematical lessons.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101924
JournalContemporary Educational Psychology
StatePublished - Oct 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Example-based learning
  • Multimedia learning
  • Online intervention
  • Self-efficacy
  • Statistical learning
  • Task anxiety

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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