Attitudes of Pakistani community members and staff toward people with intellectual disability

Mazna Patka, Christopher B. Keys, David B. Henry, Katherine E McDonald

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Scopus citations


The acceptance and inclusion of persons with intellectual disability can vary across cultures, and understanding attitudes can provide insight into such variation. To our knowledge, no previous study has explored attitudes toward people with intellectual disability among Pakistani community members and disability service providers. We administered the Community Living Attitudes Scale (Henry et al., 1996), a measure of attitudes toward people with intellectual disability developed in the United States, to 262 community members and 190 disability service providers in Pakistan. Confirmatory factor analysis found a 4-factor solution (empowerment, similarity, exclusion, and sheltering) fit the Pakistani sample. More positive attitudes were observed in staff serving people with intellectual disability, females, Christians, Hindus, Sunnis, and people with greater education. We discuss implications for research, theory, and practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)32-43
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2013



  • Attitudes
  • Intellectual disability
  • Pakistan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

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