Asian Indian American Parental Help-Seeking Intentions for ADHD

Nandini Jhawar, Kevin Antshel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Minoritized ethnic groups experience both delay to treatment and low rate of treatment contact for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To date, Asian Indian Americans have been excluded completely from ADHD help-seeking research. To fill this void, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to investigate the influence of race/ethnicity on parents’ help-seeking intentions for their child’s elevated ADHD symptoms. Parents (n = 191, 53% Asian Indian American, 47% European American; 63.9% fathers) of treatment naïve children at high risk for ADHD completed an online survey to assess their recognition of ADHD, knowledge of ADHD etiology, attitudes towards ADHD treatment, subjective norms regarding ADHD treatment, perceived control over their ADHD help-seeking behavior, and intention to seek help for their child’s elevated ADHD symptoms. Hierarchical linear regressions demonstrated that perceived behavioral control independently predicted intention to seek help in the total sample and may be more impactful for European American parents than Asian Indian American parents. In contrast, subjective norms were more influential for help-seeking intentions among Asian Indian American parents. However, attitudes towards ADHD were not significantly associated with the intention to seek help among both ethnicities. Asian Indian American parents endorsed lower levels of biopsychosocial etiology beliefs. Together, the results inform possible methods of increasing treatment engagement for both groups of parents who have children at high risk for ADHD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1551-1563
Number of pages13
JournalResearch on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2023


  • ADHD
  • Asian American
  • Asian Indian
  • Help-seeking
  • Parents
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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