Accuracy and impact of spatial aids based upon satellite enumeration to improve indoor residual spraying spatial coverage

Daniel J. Bridges, Derek Pollard, Anna M. Winters, Benjamin Winters, Chadwick Sikaala, Silvia Renn, David A. Larsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a key tool in the fight to control, eliminate and ultimately eradicate malaria. IRS protection is based on a communal effect such that an individual's protection primarily relies on the community-level coverage of IRS with limited protection being provided by household-level coverage. To ensure a communal effect is achieved through IRS, achieving high and uniform community-level coverage should be the ultimate priority of an IRS campaign. Ensuring high community-level coverage of IRS in malaria-endemic areas is challenging given the lack of information available about both the location and number of households needing IRS in any given area. A process termed 'mSpray' has been developed and implemented and involves use of satellite imagery for enumeration for planning IRS and a mobile application to guide IRS implementation. This study assessed (1) the accuracy of the satellite enumeration and (2) how various degrees of spatial aid provided through the mSpray process affected community-level IRS coverage during the 2015 spray campaign in Zambia. Methods: A 2-stage sampling process was applied to assess accuracy of satellite enumeration to determine number and location of sprayable structures. Results indicated an overall sensitivity of 94% for satellite enumeration compared to finding structures on the ground. Results: After adjusting for structure size, roof, and wall type, households in Nchelenge District where all types of satellite-based spatial aids (paper-based maps plus use of the mobile mSpray application) were used were more likely to have received IRS than Kasama district where maps used were not based on satellite enumeration. The probability of a household being sprayed in Nchelenge district where tablet-based maps were used, did not differ statistically from that of a household in Samfya District, where detailed paper-based spatial aids based on satellite enumeration were provided. Conclusion: IRS coverage from the 2015 spray season benefited from the use of spatial aids based upon satellite enumeration. These spatial aids can guide costly IRS planning and implementation leading to attainment of higher spatial coverage, and likely improve disease impact.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number93
JournalMalaria Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 23 2018


  • Electronic data capture
  • Indoor residual spraying
  • Malaria
  • Spatial coverage
  • Spray effectiveness
  • Zambia
  • mSpray

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases


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