A Supervisory Framework for Systematically Attending to Outcomes in Clinical Supervision

Peitao Zhu, Melissa M. Luke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Examination of the efficacy of clinical supervision has accrued limited evidence, partially due to lack of a clarity or consensus on what constitutes supervision outcomes. This not only leads to inconsistency across studies evaluating supervision outcomes but also falls short of providing guidance for clinical supervisors to systematically evaluate the efficacy of their work. We present a practitioner-oriented, evidence-informed, and pan-theoretical framework that connects a broad range of outcomes to the supervision process, including proximal, intermediate, and distal outcomes. We discuss how several practitioner-friendly instruments related to these outcomes can be incorporated into supervision practice and contribute to a more holistic assessment of supervision outcomes. We also discussed supervisory strategies, such as strategically attending to and balancing multiple levels of outcomes and incorporating a theoretical lens to our framework.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)94-111
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal for the Advancement of Counselling
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • Assessment
  • Clinical supervision
  • Framework
  • Supervision outcomes
  • Supervision process

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychology (miscellaneous)


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