A scalable and flexible hybrid energy storage system design and implementation

Younghyun Kim, Jason Koh, Qing Xie, Yanzhi Wang, Naehyuck Chang, Massoud Pedram

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


Energy storage systems (ESS) are becoming one of the most important components that noticeably change overall system performance in various applications, ranging from the power grid infrastructure to electric vehicles (EV) and portable electronics. However, a homogeneous ESS is subject to limited characteristics in terms of cost, efficiency, lifetime, etc., by the energy storage technology that comprises the ESS. On the other hand, hybrid ESS (HESS) are a viable solution for a practical ESS with currently available technologies as they have potential to overcome such limitations by exploiting only advantages of heterogeneous energy storage technologies while hiding their drawbacks. However, the HESS concept basically mandates sophisticated design and control to actually make the benefits happen. The HESS architecture should be able to provide controllability of many parts, which are often fixed in homogeneous ESS, and novel management policies should be able to utilize the control features. This paper introduces a complete design practice of a HESS prototype to demonstrate scalability, flexibility, and energy efficiency. It is composed of three heterogenous energy storage elements: lead-acid batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors. We demonstrate a novel system control methodology and enhanced energy efficiency through this design practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)410-422
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Power Sources
StatePublished - Jun 1 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Battery
  • Energy storage system
  • Hybrid energy storage system
  • Implementation
  • Prototype
  • Supercapacitor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'A scalable and flexible hybrid energy storage system design and implementation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this