The acid/base-catalysed Kemp elimination of 5-nitro-benzisoxazole forming 2-cyano-4-nitrophenol has long served as a design platform of enzymes with non-natural reactions, providing new mechanistic insights in protein science. Here we describe an alternative concept based on redox catalysis by P450-BM3, leading to the same Kemp product via a fundamentally different mechanism. QM/MM computations show that it involves coordination of the substrate's N-atom to haem-Fe(II) with electron transfer and concomitant N-O heterolysis liberating an intermediate having a nitrogen radical moiety Fe(III)-N· and a phenoxyl anion. Product formation occurs by bond rotation and H-transfer. Two rationally chosen point mutations cause a notable increase in activity. The results shed light on the prevailing mechanistic uncertainties in human P450-catalysed metabolism of the immunomodulatory drug leflunomide, which likewise undergoes redox-mediated Kemp elimination by P450-BM3. Other isoxazole-based pharmaceuticals are probably also metabolized by a redox mechanism. Our work provides a basis for designing future artificial enzymes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)