A randomized clinical trial of a group cognitive–behavioral therapy to reduce alcohol use among human immunodeficiency virus-infected outpatients in western Kenya

Rebecca K. Papas, Benson N. Gakinya, Michael M. Mwaniki, Hana Lee, Alfred K. Keter, Steve Martino, Debra A. Klein, Tao Liu, Michelle P. Loxley, John E. Sidle, Kathryn Schlaudt, Tobista Nafula, Victor M. Omodi, Joyce B. Baliddawa, Daniel W. Kinyanjui, Stephen A. Maisto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background and aims: Culturally relevant and feasible interventions are needed to address limited professional resources in sub-Saharan Africa for behaviorally treating the dual epidemics of HIV and alcohol use disorder. This study tested the efficacy of a cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in Eldoret, Kenya. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Setting: A large HIV outpatient clinic in Eldoret, Kenya, affiliated with the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare collaboration. Participants: A total of 614 HIV-infected outpatients [312 CBT; 302 healthy life-styles (HL); 48.5% male; mean age: 38.9 years; mean education 7.7 years] who reported a minimum of hazardous or binge drinking. Intervention and comparator: A culturally adapted six-session gender-stratified group CBT intervention compared with HL education, each delivered by paraprofessionals over six weekly 90-minute sessions with a 9-month follow-up. Measurements: Primary outcome measures were percentage of drinking days (PDD) and mean drinks per drinking day (DDD) computed from retrospective daily number of drinks data obtained by use of the time-line follow-back from baseline to 9 months post-intervention. Exploratory analyses examined unprotected sex and number of partners. Findings: Median attendance was six sessions across condition. Retention at 9 months post-intervention was high and similar by condition: CBT 86% and HL 83%. PDD and DDD marginal means were significantly lower in CBT than HL at all three study phases. Maintenance period, PDD – CBT = 3.64 (0.696), HL = 5.72 (0.71), mean difference 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.13 – 4.04; DDD – CBT = 0.66 (0.96), HL = 0.98 (0.098), mean difference = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.05 – 0.58. Risky sex decreased over time in both conditions, with a temporary effect for CBT at the 1-month follow-up. Conclusions: A cognitive–behavioral therapy intervention was more efficacious than healthy lifestyles education in reducing alcohol use among HIV-infected Kenyan outpatient drinkers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAddiction
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2020

Keywords

  • Alcohol
  • cognitive–behavioral therapy
  • HIV
  • Kenya
  • paraprofessional
  • randomized clinical trial

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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