A process model of the formation of spatial presence experiences

Werner Wirth, Tilo Hartmann, Saskia Böcking, Peter Vorderer, Christoph Klimmt, Holger Schramm, Timo Saari, Jari Laarni, Niklas Ravaja, Feliz Ribeiro Gouveia, Frank Biocca, Ana Sacau, Lutz Jäncke, Thomas Baumgartner, Petra Jäncke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

566 Scopus citations


In order to bridge interdisciplinary differences in Presence research and to establish connections between Presence and "older" concepts of psychology and communication, a theoretical model of the formation of Spatial Presence is proposed. It is applicable to the exposure to different media and intended to unify the existing efforts to develop a theory of Presence. The model includes assumptions about attention allocation, mental models, and involvement, and considers the role of media factors and user characteristics as well, thus incorporating much previous work. It is argued that a commonly accepted model of Spatial Presence is the only solution to secure further progress within the international, interdisciplinary and multiple-paradigm community of Presence research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)493-525
Number of pages33
JournalMedia Psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Communication
  • Applied Psychology


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