A process-based model of ammonia emissions from dairy cows: Improved temporal and spatial resolution

Robert W. Pinder, Natalie J. Pekney, Cliff I. Davidson, Peter J. Adams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


This research has developed an integrated model of a dairy farm that predicts monthly ammonia emission factors based on farming practices and climate conditions, including temperature, wind speed, and precipitation. The model can be used to predict the seasonal and geographic variations in ammonia emission factors, which are important for accurately predicting aerosol nitrate concentrations. The model tracks the volume of manure and mass of ammoniacal nitrogen as the manure moves through the housing, storage, application, and grazing stages of a dairy farm. Most of the processes of ammonia volatilization are modeled explicitly, but poorly understood processes are parameterized and tuned to match empirical data. The tuned model has been compared to independent experimental data and is shown to be robust over the range of experimental conditions. We have characterized the differences in emissions resulting from changes in climate conditions and farming practices and found that both of these factors are significant and should be included when developing a national inventory.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1357-1365
Number of pages9
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Issue number9
StatePublished - Mar 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Aerosol
  • Agriculture
  • Ammonia
  • Emission inventory
  • PM 2.5

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Environmental Science
  • Atmospheric Science


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