Mechanisms underlying long-term sustained weight loss and glycemic normalization after obesity surgery include changes in gut hormone levels, including glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). We demonstrate that two peptide biased agonists (GEP44 and GEP12) of the GLP-1, neuropeptide Y1, and neuropeptide Y2 receptors (GLP-1R, Y1-R, and Y2-R, respectively) elicit Y1-R antagonist-controlled, GLP-1R-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion in both rat and human pancreatic islets, thus revealing the counteracting effects of Y1-R and GLP-1R agonism. These agonists also promote insulin-independent Y1-R-mediated glucose uptake in muscle tissue ex vivo and more profound reductions in food intake and body weight than liraglutide when administered to diet-induced obese rats. Our findings support a role for Y1-R signaling in glucoregulation and highlight the therapeutic potential of simultaneous receptor targeting to achieve long-term benefits for millions of patients.
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