We develop a general measure of stigmatization based on an evolutionary analysis of social exclusion (Kurzban & Leary, 2001)—the General Evolutionary Motives for Stigmatization (GEMS) scale. The measure includes subscales for contagion, dangerousness, dishonesty, lack of mental resources, and lack of material resources. Study 1 provided initial validity information in the form of “stigma profiles” for different disparaged groups. Study 2 replicated and extended those findings and highlighted the utility of including an “average person” baseline. Studies 1 and 2 further demonstrated that the GEMS, together with a humanitarianism-egalitarianism measure (Katz & Hass, 1988), can predict ambivalent feelings about stigmatized groups. Limitations and potential uses of the measure are discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Psychology