A framework of concurrent task scheduling and dynamic voltage and frequency scaling in real-time embedded systems with energy harvesting

Xue Lin, Yanzhi Wang, Siyu Yue, Naehyuck Chang, Massoud Pedram

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

17 Scopus citations

Abstract

Energy harvesting is a promising technique to overcome the limitation imposed by the finite energy capacity of batteries in conventional battery-powered embedded systems. In particular, the question of how one can achieve full energy autonomy (i.e., perpetual, battery-free operation) of a real-time embedded system with an energy harvesting capability (RTES-EH) by applying a global control strategy is investigated. The energy harvesting module is comprised of a Photovoltaic (PV) panel for harvesting energy and a supercapacitor for storing any excess energy. The global controller performs optimal operating point tracking for the PV panel, state-of-charge management for the supercapacitor, and energy-harvesting-aware real-time task scheduling with dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) in the embedded load device. The controller, which accounts for dynamic V-I characteristics of the PV panel, terminal voltage variation and self-leakage of the supercapacitor, and power losses in voltage converters, employs a cascaded feedback control structure with an inner control loop determining the V-I operating point of the PV panel and an outer supervisory control loop performing real-time task scheduling and setting the voltage and frequency level in the embedded load device (to keep the state-of-charge of the supercapacitor in a desirable range). Experimental results show that the proposed global controller lowers the task drop rate in a RTES-EH by up to 60% compared with baseline controller within the same service time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of the International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design, ISLPED 2013
Pages70-75
Number of pages6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 11 2013
Event2013 ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design, ISLPED 2013 - Beijing, China
Duration: Sep 4 2013Sep 6 2013

Publication series

NameProceedings of the International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design
ISSN (Print)1533-4678

Other

Other2013 ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design, ISLPED 2013
CountryChina
CityBeijing
Period9/4/139/6/13

Keywords

  • DVFS
  • Task scheduling
  • photovoltaic
  • real-time embedded system
  • supercapacitor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)

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  • Cite this

    Lin, X., Wang, Y., Yue, S., Chang, N., & Pedram, M. (2013). A framework of concurrent task scheduling and dynamic voltage and frequency scaling in real-time embedded systems with energy harvesting. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design, ISLPED 2013 (pp. 70-75). [6629269] (Proceedings of the International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design). https://doi.org/10.1109/ISLPED.2013.6629269