A Bayesian model for implicit effects in perceptual identification

Lael Schooler, Richard M. Shiffrin, Jeroen G W Raaijmakers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

54 Scopus citations


Retrieving effectively from memory (REM; R. M. Shiffrin & M. Steyvers, 1997), an episodic model of memory, is extended to implicit memory phenomena, namely the perceptual identification studies reported in R. Ratcliff and G. McKoon (1997). In those studies, the influence of prior study was greatest when words were presented most briefly and when forced-choice targets and foils were most similar. R. Ratcliff and G. McKoon use these data to argue against models in which prior study changes a word's representation. A model in which prior study changes a word's representation by adding context information is fit to their data; at test, the model uses a Bayesian decision process to compare the perceptual and context features associated with the test flash to stored traces. The effects of prior study are due to matching extra context information and are larger when alternatives share many features, thereby reducing noise that attenuates these effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)257-272
Number of pages16
JournalPsychological Review
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2001
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

Schooler, L., Shiffrin, R. M., & Raaijmakers, J. G. W. (2001). A Bayesian model for implicit effects in perceptual identification. Psychological Review, 108(1), 257-272.